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How to Treat Acute Kidney Failure

Acute kidney failure is a condition when the kidneys stop functioning suddenly. The main function of the kidneys is to filter metabolic waste products from the blood and dispose of them through urine. If this function stops, then the waste that should be disposed of actually accumulates in the body. This condition can endanger the life of the sufferer. Therefore, it is important to recognize the symptoms and causes so how to treat acute kidney failure can be done as soon as possible.

How to Treat Acute Kidney Failure

Causes of Acute Kidney Failure

There are several things that can cause acute kidney failure, including impaired blood flow to the kidneys (prerenal), damage to the kidneys, or an obstruction in the flow of urine (postrenal).

Please refer to the explanation of some of the causes of acute kidney failure.

1. Impaired blood flow to the kidneys

The following are some conditions or diseases that can block blood flow to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure:

  • Blood loss due to bleeding, severe dehydration, or severe diarrhea
  • Surgery
  • Severe burns
  • Anaphylaxis or sepsis
  • Heart disease, such as a heart attack or heart failure
  • Liver disease, such as liver cirrhosis
  • Take medications, such as ibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen, and antihypertensives

2. Kidney damage

Damage to the kidneys can also cause acute kidney failure. Kidney damage can occur due to:

  • Glomerulonephritis or inflammation of the filters in the kidneys
  • Cholesterol that accumulates so that it can block blood flow to the kidneys
  • Rhabdomyolysis or damage to muscle tissue
  • Scleroderma, which is a group of diseases that attack the connective tissue and skin
  • Blood clots in the veins and arteries of the kidneys
  • Tumor lysis syndrome, which is damage to tumor cells, resulting in the release of toxins that cause kidney damage
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is a disease caused by red blood cells that break down too quickly
  • Severe infections, such as Weil's disease due to leptospirosis
  • Use of contrast fluid, which is the fluid used for CT scans or X-rays
  • Use of medications, such as hypertension medications (such as diuretics or ACE inhibitors), aminoglycoside antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and chemotherapy medicines
  • Exposure to toxins, alcohol, heavy metals or cocaine

3. Blockage in the urinary tract

A blockage in the urinary tract, including the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or urethra, can cause fluid to back up into the kidneys. This condition can cause kidney damage that can lead to acute kidney failure. Some of the diseases that can cause blockage of the urinary tract are as follows:

  • Kidney stones
  • Tumors in the urinary tract, kidneys, or organs around the kidneys
  • Thrombosis of the renal veins
  • Enlargement of the prostate
  • Neurogenic bladder or damage to the bladder nerves
  • Stricture or connective tissue in the urinary tract
  • Side effects of surgery on the pelvis

Risk Factor of Acute Renal Failure

There are several factors that can increase a person's risk of developing kidney failure, including the following:

  • Over 65 years of age
  • Are undergoing chemotherapy or other intensive care
  • Have kidney disease or have had kidney failure before
  • Have cancer or are undergoing cancer treatment
  • Have hypertension, diabetes, liver disease, heart failure, peripheral artery disease and obesity
  • Have a family with a history of kidney disease

Sign Symptoms of Acute Renal Failure

In the early stages, acute kidney failure does not show any symptoms and can only be detected through laboratory tests. However, the symptoms of acute kidney failure can appear quickly and suddenly after a disturbance in the kidneys.

Some of the symptoms experienced by acute kidney failure are as follows:

  • Decreased amount and frequency of urine
  • Swelling of the legs due to fluid buildup
  • Pain in back and stomach
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Decreased appetite
  • Body tired easily
  • Fever
  • Pain or swelling in the joints
  • A rash or itching appears on the skin
  • Tremor in hand
  • Pain or a feeling of pressure in the chest
  • Heart rhythm disturbances
  • Hard to breathe
  • Bad breath
  • Seizures
  • Coma

How Do You Treat Acute Renal Failure

If you experience acute kidney failure, go to the emergency room immediately, especially if you have had kidney failure before or have a family history of kidney disease.

The doctor will ask about the symptoms experienced and the history of the disease that has been suffered. The doctor will then perform a physical examination and also carry out supporting examinations. The supporting examinations carried out by the doctor include:

  • Urine test, is a test to measure electrolyte levels in urine and measure the volume of urine that comes out
  • Blood test, is a test to measure creatinine and urea nitrogen levels which will increase in acute kidney failure, as well as to measure the glomerular filtration rate to assess the severity of acute kidney failure
  • Scans using ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to see the condition of the kidneys and detect the presence or absence of blockages or tumors in the blood vessels to the kidneys or urinary tract
  • Kidney biopsy, is a procedure to detect abnormalities in kidney tissue

Treatment of acute kidney failure is done to prevent complications and restore kidney function. Usually patients with acute kidney failure need to be hospitalized the length of which depends on how severe the condition is and how quickly the kidneys can recover.

The method used for the treatment of acute kidney failure depends on the cause. The methods of treatment that are usually given by doctors are:

  • Provide recommendations to regulate diet, namely limiting the consumption of foods high in salt and potassium during the kidney healing process. This method includes how to treat acute renal failure at home.
  • Giving medicines including medicines to balance electrolyte levels in the blood, diuretic medicines to remove excess fluid, antibiotics if the cause of kidney failure is a bacterial infection.
  • Dialysis is a procedure that is carried out if kidney damage is severe enough.

Also read articles about: How to Treat Chronic Kidney Failure

How to Prevent Acute Kidney Failure

An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. How to prevent acute kidney failure is to maintain kidney health by doing the following things:

  • Drink enough water
  • Eating healthy food
  • Exercise regularly
  • Maintain ideal body weight
  • Limit salt intake
  • Manage stress well
  • Control blood pressure
  • Control blood sugar levels
  • Limiting the consumption of pain relievers
  • Quit smoking
  • Limiting consumption of alcoholic beverages

Also read articles about: How to Prevent Kidney Failure

That's an explanation of how to treat acute kidney failure. Hopefully the explanation above can be useful.

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